ບຸນທອດຜ້າປ່າກະຖິນສາມັກຄີວັດຮ່ອງສຸພາບປະຈຳປີພ.ສ໒໕໖໑

#ລະດູການບຸນກະຖິນ ເລີ້ມແລ້ວ
Kathina ceremony season really had started.
#ບຸນທອດຜ້າປ່າກະຖິນສາມັກຄີ ວັດຮ່ອງສຸພາບ ປະຈຳປີ ພສ 2561


11/11/2018
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ທີ່ວັດຮ່ອງສຸພາບ ເມືອງໄຊເສດຖາ ນະຄອນຫຼວງວຽງຈັນ





ມູ







































ນເຫດແລະຄວາມເປັນມາຂອງບຸນກະຖິນ

ບຸນກະຖິນ ເປັນບຸນປະເພນີສຸດທ້າຍຂອງຮີດ 12 ຊາວລາວ ຜູ້ທີ່ນັບຖືພຣະພຸດທະສາດສະໜາຈະມັກກະທຳກັນຕາມຮີດຄອງ.

#ຄຳວ່າ: “ກະຖິນ” ໝາຍເຖິງ ໄມ້ສະດືງທີ່ທໍາເປັນກອບ ສໍາລັບຂືງຫຍິບຜ້າຈີວອນຂອງພຣະພິກສຸ ເປັນຊື່ຜ້າ “ກະຖິນ” ມີກໍານົດການທໍາ 1 ເດືອນຄືຕັ້ງແຕ່ແຮມຄໍ່າ 1 ເດືອນ 11 ເຖິງກາງເດືອນ 12 ຖ້າຫາກມີຜູ້ສັດທາ ຢາກຈະຖວາຍກ່ອນ ຫຼື ຫຼັງກໍານົດນີ້ ບໍ່ໄດ້ເອີ້ນວ່າ “ກະຖິນ” ຈະຊື່ວ່າ “ກອງອັດຖະ”. ແຕ່ນິຍົມກັນເຮັດຫຼາຍແມ່ນ ເດືອນຂຶ້ນ ເດືອນ 12 ເພາະສ່ວນຫຼາຍຈະເຮັດເປັນ “ມະຫາກະຖິນ” ເພາະຈະມີໂອກາດກຽມການບໍລິຂານກະຖິນໃຫ້ໄດ້ຫຼາຍ ເພາະມີກໍານົດເຮັດໃນເດືອນ 12 ແລະ ທັງເປັນຮີດຄອງປະເພນີລາວເຮົາທັງຫຼາຍພາກັນນິຍົມກັນ ຖືວ່າ ຜູ້ທີ່ສ້າງ ”ກອງມະຫະກະຖິນ” ແລ້ວຈະໄດ້ໄປເກີດຢູ່ເມືອງສະຫວັນ ເໝືອນກັບເລື່ອງຕີນນະບານບຸລຸດເປັນຕົວຢ່າງຈຶ່ງພາກັນນິຍົມສ້າງ. ກະຖິນ ມີ 2 ປະເພດຄື: “ມະຫາກະຖິນ” ຄືກະຖິນໃຫຍ່ແມ່ນໄດ້ກະກຽມເຄື່ອງໄທຍະທານມານານ ແລະ “ຈຸລະກະຖິນ” ຫຼື ກະຖິນແລ່ນ ຄືກະຖິນແບບຮີບດ່ວນ ຫຼືເຮັດແລ້ວໃນມື້ດຽວ ກໍຖວາຍມື້ນັ້ນເລີຍ (ປະເພດທີ 2 ບໍ່ຄ່ອຍຈະເຫັນມີ) ໃນການທຳບຸນກະຖິນ ທັງ 2 ປະເພດນີ້ກ່ອນອື່ນຕ້ອງຈອງເສຍກ່ອນ.

#ມູນເຫດແຫ່ງການເຮັດ ບຸນກະຖິນ

ມີເລື່ອງເລົ່າໄວ້ວ່າ ພິກສຸຊາວເມືອງປາວາ 30 ຮູບ ຈະໄປເຝົ້າສົມເດັດພຣະພຸດທະເຈົ້າ ທີ່ວັດພະເຊຕະວັນ ແຕ່ໄປບໍ່ທັນມື້ເຂົ້າວັນສາ ຈິ່ງພັກປະຈຳພັນສາທີ່ເມືອງສາເກດ ພໍອອກພັນສາກໍຮີບໄປເຝົ້າ ຍ່າງຕາກແດດຕາກຝົນ ຈົນເຖິງວັດພະເຊຕະວັນ ພະອົງຊົງຊາບຄວາມລຳບາກຂອງພະພິກສຸເລົ່ານັ້ນ ຈຶ່ງຊົງອະນຸຍາດໃຫ້ຮັບຜ້າກະຖິນໃນໄລຍະຫຼັງພັນສາ 1 ເດືອນ ຈົນຖືເປັນປະເພນີຈົນເທົ່າທຸກມື້ນີ້. ນາງ ວິສາຂາ ເປັນຄົນທໍາອິດທີ່ນໍາຜ້າກະຖິນໄປຖວາຍແກ່ພຣະພິກສຸສົງ ມີພຣະພຸດທະເຈົ້າເປັນປະທານ, ຕໍ່ມາການເຮັດກະຖິນ ເກີດລຳບາກຂຶ້ນ ເປັນຕົ້ນວ່າ ຜ້າຖວາຍບໍ່ພໍແກ່ພຣະສົງ, ພຣະສົງບໍ່ຮູ້ວ່າຈະໃຫ້ແກ່ຜູ້ໃດ ເປັນເຫດໃຫ້ພຣະພຸດທະເຈົ້າຊົງບັນຍັດ ສິກຂາບົດເພີ່ມຕື່ມຂຶ້ນອີກວ່າ: ຜ້າກະຖິນສົມຄວນໃຫ້ ພິກສຸຜູ້ຈໍາພັນສາຄົບໄຕມາດ (ສາມເດືອນ) ຜູ້ມີຈີວອນເກົ່າກວ່າໝູ່ ແລະ ຜູ້ສະຫຼາດໃນພຣະທັມວິໄນ ແລະ ໃຫ້ພິກສຸ ຜູ້ຈຳພັນສາພາກັບອະນຸໂມທະນາເປັນໄດ້ຊື່ວ່າຮັບກະຖິນດ້ວຍກັນມີອະນິສົງເໝືອນກັນ.

#ການຈອງກະຖິນ

ຄຳວ່າ: “ຈອງ” ໄດ້ແກ່ການກໍານົດໄວ້ ຫຼື ໝາຍໄວ້ ຜູ້ເປັນເຈົ້າພາບ ເຈົ້າສັດທາທີ່ຈະທອດກະຖິນ ຕ້ອງໄດ້ຈອງ ໂດຍວິທີຂຽນລົງເຈ້ຍວ່າ: ຂ້າພະເຈົ້າຜູ້ມີນາມຂ້າງເທີງນີ້ ຈະນຳຜ້າກະຖິນມາຖວາຍແກ່ພຣະຜູ້ເປັນເຈົ້າຜູ້ຈຳພັນສາໃນອາວາດນີ້ ຖ້າໄດ້ລະບຸ ຫຼື ກຳນົດວັນທີ່ຈະທອດແນ່ນອນແລ້ວກໍຂຽນໃສ່ເຈ້ຍນັ້ນເລີຍ. ໄປລົງຊື່ ແລະ ນາມສະກຸນໄວພ້ອມ ນຳໄປຕິດໄວ້ປະຕູສິມ ການເຮັດຢ່າງເປີດເຜີຍແບບນີ້ເປັນຫຼັກຖານທັງສອງຝ່າຍ ທັງເຈົ້າພາບ ແລະ ພຣະສົງ ຫາກມີຜູ້ສັດທານຳກະຖິນມາທອດໃນວັນດຽວກັນ 2 ກອງແມ່ນບໍ່ໄດ້ ແຕ່ຖ້າຕົກລົງເປັນກອງດຽວກັນໄດ້ບໍ່ຫ້າມ.

ບໍລິຂານ ໝາຍວ່າ: ເຄື່ອງໃຊ້ສອຍຂອງພຣະສົງ ທີ່ຈໍາເປັນຂາດບໍ່ໄດ້ຄື: ບໍລິຂານ 8 ຢ່າງໄດ້ແກ່: ບາດ, ສັງຄາຕິ, ຜ້າຈິວອນ, ຜ້າສະບົງ 2 ຜືນ, ມີດແຖ ຫຼື ມີດຕັດເລັບ, ສາຍປະຄົດແອວ, ຜ້າກອງນໍ້າ ແລະ ເຂັມ. ສ່ວນບໍລິຂານໄດ້ແກ່ສິ່ງແວດລ້ອມຈຳພວກຈີວອນໄດ້ແກ່ຜ້າປູນັ່ງ, ຜ້າອາບນໍ້າ ຜ້າເຊັດໜ້າເປັນຕົ້ນ. ຈຳພວກເຄື່ອງບໍລິໂພກມີເຂົ້າ, ປາ, ອາຫານ, ພິກ, ຂີງ, ກະທຽມ, ກ້ວຍ, ອ້ອຍ, ໝາກພ້າວ ເປັນຕົ້ນ. ຈຳພວກເຄື່ອງອຸປະໂພກມີ: ງ້ຽງ, ຄັນໂທ, ໂອ, ຈານ, ຕຽງ, ຕັ່ງ,ເສື່ອ, ອາສະນະ, ໝອນ, ບ່ວງສ້ອມ, ຈຳພວກຢາປົວພະຍາດຕ່າງໆ ສິ່ງເຫຼົ່ານີ້ເປັນສິ່ງຂອງຈຳເປັນ ແຕ່ຈະຂາດໄປແດ່ບາງຢ່າງກໍບໍ່ເປັນຫຍັງ ຜູ້ສັດທາມັກຈະຈັດຫາໃຫ້ຄົບທຸກຢ່າງ ແຕ່ວ່າຈະເພີ່ມຫຼາຍ ຫຼື ໜ້ອຍເທົ່າໃດບໍ່ມີຜິດ ຖ້າບໍລິຂານ 8 ຢ່າງຄົບ.

ຄັດຈາກປຶ້ມ: ວັດທະນະທຳ ແລະ ປະເພນີບູຮານລາວ

ໂດຍ: ມະຫາ ຄຳຜຸຍ ພິລາວົງ
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The Significance of the Kathina Robe Offering Ceremony
- The three-month rains-retreat seclusion of Buddhist Saṅgha concludes with the pavāraṇā (invitation) ceremony, which is in turn followed by Kaṭhina robe offering festival. It is a traditional ceremony and ancient custom mostly found in the Theravada Buddhist tradition. Today, the Kaṭhina robe offering is a large, annual festival where Buddhists get together and celebrate the day by offering monastics gifts, such as robes and alms.

Kaṭhina means “hard”, “stiff”, “difficult”, etc. The word Kaṭhina denotes a cloth offered to the monks annually after the end of the rains-retreat (vassāvāsa). It also refers to a wooden frame used by the monks in sewing their robes. However, the word mostly denotes the robe, cīvara in pali, known as Kaṭhina cīvara. The character of the material used symbolizes the cīvara, which is one of the four requisites of a monk. The Kaṭhina robe is offered to the monastic Saṅgha by lay followers. Apart from the lay followers, monks, nuns and novices also can offer to the Buddhist Saṅgha.

The historical background of the Kaṭhina robe offering is mentioned in the Vinaya Pitaka. While the Buddha was dwelling at JetavanaVihar in Shravasti, a group of thirty monks visited the Buddha after the three-month rains-retreat. The Buddha asked them about their retreat and noticed their worn out robes. It is said that at the time, monks used to wear sewn pieces of cloth collected from different places such as cemeteries, streets, rubbish-heaps, etc.To rectify this, the Buddha granted permission to celebrate the Kaṭhina ceremony with the following such rules:

- Only those who have successfully completed the rains-retreat can accept the Kaṭhina robe.

- The period of the offering is only one month, from the middle of September-October to October-November (lunar month), and contemporary Assayuja to Kattikā (full moon of the Buddhist month).

- When the Kaṭhina robe is offered to the Buddhist Saṅgha by lay followers, a group of monks (not less than four monks) will officially hand over to a selected monk by performing some Buddhist ritual activities (Vinaya rules).

- A monk who has received the Kaṭhina robe, is not allowed to receive the Kaṭhina robe a second time in the same month period.

- Whoever observes rains-retreat from the later (pacchimikā) time, also not allowed to receive the Kaṭhina robe. Only those who have entered the rains-retreat from the earlier (purimikā) time, are allowed to receive it.

- The proper time to give the Kaṭhina robe is from sunrise to dawn the next day, and in modern time it is calculated as twenty-four hours.

The monk who accepts the Kaṭhina robe enjoys five privileges. From the date of the ceremony, (i) he is free to go to a meal invitation without having informed another monk. (ii) Usually monks use a full set of three robes, but he is allowed to go without taking a full set robes according to a specific period of time without any fault. (iii) He can enjoy a group meal (with four or more monks). (iv) He can use as many as robes as he likes (v). Finally, he can receive other robes offered to the Buddhist Sangha during the period of rainy season and on the occasion of the Kaṭhina ceremony.

The Buddha himself stated the significance of the offering of Kaṭhina robes in the Vinaya Piṭaka. In the Mahāvagga, it is stated that the Kaṭhina robe offering is the highest offering and the most meritorious of skillful deeds. The immeasurable merits of offering the Kaṭhina robe can be illustrated in many examples. In a previous life, the Venerable Nagita Thera offered the Kaṭhina robe to the Sangha. As a result of accumulated merits, he enjoyed divine pleasures and reigned as the king of heaven for many eons. He never suffered in the unpleasant planes and in his last birth he became an Arahant (a worthy one), during the Buddha's era.

Today, the Kaṭhina robe offering ceremony is celebrated as the largest festival among traditional Buddhists in the world. Throughout the day, Buddhists enjoy the ceremony with cultural entertainment and performing many meritorious acts. According the schedule, it begins early in the morning. People gather in the monastery, undertake the five precepts, and listen to Dhamma talks. The first session is concluded before noon. Thereafter, the devotees serve a meal to the Saṅgha and enjoys whatever is left over.
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Reference:
https://www.buddhistdoor.net/…/the-significance-of-the-kath…
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#ກົດໄລ #ກົດແຊ: ສົ່ງເສີມກິດຈະກຳທາງພຣະພຸດທະສາສະໜາ.
#ໝາຍເຫດ(ຮູບພາບທັງໝົດຖ່າຍໂດຍຄະນະສົງວັດໃໝ່ໂຊກຄຳ)

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